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early childhood
stage in human development commonly accepted to be between the ages of 3-5 years.
earth's magnetic field
the natural magnetic field that surrounds the earth's surface due to electrical currents.
the polished appearance of a bone due to cartilaginous damage and the contact of bone to bone at a joint.
ecological niche
the place that an organism or a group of organisms occupies in an ecosystem and its interactions with the surrounding environment.
the study of the relationship between an organism and the surrounding environment.
a unit in ecology that consists of organisms and non-living objects that may affect the environment.
edge ware analysis

the methodologies associated with studying the mircowear produced along the edges of stone tools when they were used for specific processing tasks so that inferences can be made with regard to how ancient tools where used.

the last epoch of the Vendian period on the geologic time scale that approximately dates from 590 million years ago to 570 million years ago.

a very hard substance that covers the dentine on the crown of a tooth.

increase in brain size without an increase in body size.
a cast of a brain through natural or artificial processes.
endocranial volume

the size of the space in the cranium where the brain sits.

a geographically defined area that includes its geological and ecological settings and the biological organisms that inhabit the area.

an epoch in the Tertiary period on the geologic time scale that approximately dates from 55 million years ago to 35 million years ago.

the second center of ossification in long bones; separated from the shaft by an epiphyseal plate.

a unit of geological time longer than an age and shorter than a period.


a unit of geological time shorter than an eon and typically broken down into subdivisions of time called periods.

the process by which sediments are displaced by water, wind, ice, or gravity.

an organisms ability to tolerate a wide range of habitats and climatic conditions.


when the sole of the foot is turned laterally; the opposite of inversion.


descent through genetic modification; a change in gene allele frequencies from one generation to the next.


an evolved character whose current use is not the same as its original use.

species that are living, opposite of extinct.

a movement to increase the angle between a joint; see also flexion.

a species that no longer exists; may only be identifiable through the fossil record or eye witness accounts. Some animals have gone extinct in the historical period.
the process of becoming extinct; the termination of a species.
extraordinary fossils
the preservation of the soft morphology (e.g., skin, feathers, body organs) of an organism in the fossil record; very rare.